Bates, Samuel P.: History of the 1st Pennsylvania Reserves

The First Regiment of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps was organized at Camp Wayne, near West Chester, on the 9th of June, 1861. Captain Henry M. McIntire, who led the Brandywine Guards, was the first to occupy the camp, and was assigned to its temporary command. The formal organization was effected under the immediate direction and orders of Major General George A. McCall, who had been designated as the commander of the division, and resulted as follows:

R. Biddle Roberts, of Pittsburg, Colonel

Henry M. McIntire, of West Chester, Lieutenant Colonel

Lemuel Todd, of Carlisle, Major

Soon after his election Colonel Roberts assumed command of the regiment, and of the camp, and appointed Lieutenant Charles B. Lamborn, of Company A, Adjutant, and Lieutenant Joseph R. T. Coates, of Company C, Quartermaster, the Army Regulations at that time in force requiring these officers to be detailed from the line officers of the regiment. In addition to his own, Colonel Roberts also proceeded to organize, arm and equip the Seventh Regiment, for which companies were daily arriving. On the fourth of July Governor Curtin reviewed the two regiments, in the town of West Chester, in the presence of an immense concourse of people, the citizens entertaining the troops at Everhart’s Grove.

On Saturday, July 20th, Colonel Roberts received by telegraph, an order to hold his regiment in readiness, and on the following day, one to move by rail to Harrisburg. The battle of Bull Run. having on this day terminated disastrously to the national arms, urgent calls from Washington for troops awaited his arrival. At daylight of July 22d, the regiment marched for Baltimore, and arrived at nine o’clock that evening. Having reported to General Dix, who had that morning received the command of the district from General Banks, it was ordered to Carroll Hill, in the suburbs of the city, to which point it moved on the ensuing morning, and encamped.

As the regiment approached Baltimore on the 22d, the troops were warned of the danger of marehing through its limits, and on its arrival at the outer depot, Colonel Roberts was met by a body of the police, and advised, on account of the excited state of the public mind, not to attempt to pass through the city. But before reaching the depot, he had caused ammunition to be distributed to the men, and without heeding the admonitions of the police, or those met on the way, the command moved in good order and without molestation,.though the side-walks and houses were crowded with rebels, and those sympathizing with treason. On the 26th of July, while at Camp Carroll, the regiment was mustered into the service of the United States, and on Sunday, the 27th, in obedience to orders received from General Dix, it moved to Annapolis, Maryland.

Headquarters were established in the naval school. Six companies were stationed in the town, and four companies were detailed to guard the railroad from Annapolis to Annapolis Junction, on the Washington and Baltimore road, with headquarters at the junction. Contraband supplies for the enemy had been constantly forwarded by rebel sympathizers at Baltimore, by means of wagons and private carriages, which were sent south from below, together with irregular mails, and communications of spies, everywhere moving about in the national camp. The agents engaged in this business were intercepted and the line of intercourse effectually broken up. The seizure of an immense amount of drugs put up for the enemy’s use, called forth the special commendation of General Dix, who, in his official report of the operations on the line of the Annapolis road, commended the conduct of the officers and men of this regiment, for their care and faithfulness in discharging this duty. Perfect order was enforced in Annapolis, and the excellent discipline of the regiment, and decorous conduct of the men, elicited the good will of the inhabitants.

Remaining on duty until August 30th, it was relieved by the Twenty-first Massachusetts, and marched by rail to Washington, where it remained until the following morning, and thence marched to Tennallytown, Maryland, and encamped with other regiments of the division, under the command of Major General George A. McCall. While here, the Reserve Corps was organized in three brigades, the First Regiment being assigned to the First Brigade, Brigadier General John F. Reynolds.1

On the 10th of October, it marched with the division via the Chain Bridge to Langley, Virginia, and encamped at Camp Pierpont. In December, shortly before the action at Dranesville, the regiment made an armed reconnoissance to near that point, where it remained two days.

On the 20th of December, it marched to Difficult Creek, where the command halted for a few moments within sound of the engagement in progress at Dranesville. The regiment was immediately put in motion, marching to the sound of the enemy’s guns, and reached the battle-field just as the action closed, the enemy having been routed and put to flight. Returning with the command, it reached camp at midnight.

On the 3d of January, 1862, Colonel Roberts was assigned to duty as Assistant Provost Marshal General of the Army of the Potomac, under Brigadier General Andrew Porter, with headquarters at Washington, when the command devolved on Lieutenant Colonel Henry M. McIntire.

On the 10th of March, the regiment marched with the division via Hunter’s Mills to Alexandria, through deep mud and a pelting rain, and went into camp near Fairfax Seminary. Colonel Roberts, having been relieved from duty at Washington, resumed command March 19th, and soon after the brigade moved by rail on open trucks, in a blinding snow storm, towards Manassas Junction, and halting after nightfall on the south bank of Bull Run, encamped in the huts lately occupied by the rebels.

On the following morning, the command marched to Manassas Junction, where it remained until the 17th, when the First Brigade moved forward to Catlett’s Station, and soon after the whole division moved towards Fredericksburg. The First Corps, under General McDowell, was ordered into camp at Falmouth, and the Reserves, now assigned to his command, were quartered at Fort Washington, to the rear of the town. After the departure of two divisions of the First Corps for the Shenandoah Valley, the Reserves were moved to the bank of the Rappahannock, opposite Fredericksburg. On the 26th of May, Reynolds’ Brigade crossed the river, and marching through the town, encamped about a mile and a-half beyond. General Reynolds was appointed Military Governor, and his brigade performed duty as provost guard until the 31st of May when it re-crossed the river, and again encamped near Falmouth.

Peninsula Campaign

General MClellan having been placed in chief command of the army, had decided to operate against Richmond, by way of the Peninsula, and had already opened the campaign. On Sunday, June 8th, the division left Falmouth, and proceeded along the bank of the river to Gray’s Landing, reaching that place about two o’clock A. M., after a fatiguing march of ten miles.

On the following morning it embarked upon the Rappahannock, and entered Chesapeake Bay about sunset on the 10th of June. Sailing southward to the mouth of York River, it reached the White House via the York and Pamunky rivers at three P. M., on the 11th. On the morning of June 12th, it marched along the York River railroad and encamped at Dispatch Station.

On the 13th, Reynolds’ Brigade was ordered back to Tunstal’s Station, eight miles to the rear, to assist the railroad guard at that post, who had been attacked by rebel raiders under command of Fitz Hugh Lee. It met and skirmished with the enemy through the woods on each side of the railroad, reaching the station in time to save a train of cars and a bridge from fire. The command returned to Dispatch Station on the 15th.

Battle of Mechanicsville

On the 18th the division marched to Gaines’ Farm, and on the 19th moved with the brigade to Beaver Dam Creek, near Mechanicsville, on the extreme right of the Army of the Potomac, and was assigned to the army corps commanded by General Fitz John Porter. On the 26th four companies of the regiment were ordered to Mechanicsville on fatigue duty, and remained till late in the day, when they were driven in by the enemy, and rejoined the rest of the regiment which was then supporting De Haven’s Battery. It was soon after ordered, by General Reynolds, to the support of Cooper’s Battery, which was being fiercely assaulted by large forces of the enemy. The First Regiment held the centre of the brigade, and for three hours of terrific fighting against vastly superior numbers, maintained its original position, repulsed the enemy and slept upon the ground so gallantly held. The loss in this engagement was seven killed and twenty wounded.

Next morning, June 27th, an order to fall back was received with surprise, and the command reluctantly withdrew under the fire of the enemy, who at daylight opened his batteries that had been posted during the night in front of the position occupied by Cooper’s guns. Resisting the attack step by step, the brigade retired in the direction of Gaines’ Mill. It had been determined, on account of the severe duty performed by the Reserves on the 25th and 26th, that they should be held in reserve during the battle about to ensue; but on the afternoon of the 27th they were again ordered into the fight. The First was sent to the relief of Duryea’s Zouaves, who were engaged with a large force of the enemy on an open field. Taking position immediately in the rear of the line held by the Zouaves, the regiment met and repulsed every attack of the enemy for nearly three hours, retiring only when the last round of ammunition was exhausted, and relief was sent.

The First and Eighth Regiments, marching to the rear for ammunition, were met by General Porter, who, excited by the breaking of our lines, exclaimed. “Colonel Roberts, can’t you form a line with these two regiments and stop those flying troops?” The Colonel replied that he could, but demanded a supply of ammunition that he might stop the enemy. The two regiments immediately formed in line with coolness and precision under the eye of General Porter, and elicited from him expressions of enthusiastic admiration. The position taken was held until nightfall. In this engagement the First lost seven killed and twenty-eight wounded. Among the killed was Lieutenant Stewart, of Company H, who had been ordered by Colonel Roberts, on entering the field, to the command of Company B, which was without a commissioned officer. He was shot through the head and instantly killed at the moment of assuming the command.

Crossing to the right bank of the Chickahominy, the division remained in camp during the day, and at night marched through mud and rain as wagon guard, and reached Savage Station Sunday morning, June 29th. After a brief halt it moved forward towards New Market Cross Roads, and, after a fatiguing march of fifteen hours, the regiment was ordered on picket duty.

June 30th, the First and Third Reserves were ordered to the support of the cavalry pickets and videttes. While posting his men Colonel Roberts discovered that, through the treachery of a, guide who had been sent to him, he had led his regiment within the enemy’s lines. Immediately re-forming, he withdrew to the New Market Road, and soon after placed it in support of Cooper’s Battery, where it maintained its position with great steadiness for five hours, repulsing three distinct and heavy charges of the enemy,2 and holding the position until relieved, after nightfall by one of the regiments of Meagher’s brigade.

The Reserves having retired to a road on the right of the line, the officers endeavored to re-form their shattered ranks. Generals McCall and Reynolds having been captured, General Meade wounded, Colonel Simmons, commanding the First Brigade, killed, Colonel Roberts being the ranking officer on the field, assumed command and ordered the men to form on the road. This remnant of the division remained in position immediately in the rear of the original line of battle, until about midnight, when an order to withdraw was given, and it marched to Malvern Hill. For his gallantry in this engagement, which was one of the most desperate of the war, the Colonel received the special thanks of the General commanding the division.

The loss of the regiment in this battle (variously known as Charles City Cross Roads, New Market Cross Roads, Glendale and Nelson’s Farm) was eleven killed and eighty-five wounded. Captain John F. Bailey, of Company K, was among the killed; Lieutenant Colonel Henry M. McIntire, and Captain George H. Hess, of Company D, were severely wounded, and the hospital to which they had been carried having been captured, they fell into the hands of the enemy. Captain Hess died from the effects of his wounds, at Richmond, on the 4th of July, 1862. Lieutenant Colonel McIntire, after his release, endeavored to rejoin the regiment, but was pronounced physically unfit for further duty in the field. He was accordingly mustered out of service on the 7th of January, 1863, and soon after died.

Malvern Hill was reached early in the morning of July 1st, and during the action on that day the fragment of the division now remaining was held in reserve, having fought three battles, and performed severe duty and fatiguing night marches, since the 26th of June. About midnight the division marched for Harrison’s Landing, and upon its arrival was ordered on picket duty in the midst of a furious storm. Soon after reaching the landing, Colonel Roberts obtained leave of absence on account of sickness, and was succeeded in command by Major Lemuel Todd, Lieutenant Colonel McIntire being at that time wounded and a prisoner.

Upon the return of Colonel Roberts, August 8th, he was ordered to the command of the First Brigade. The regiment remained in camp at Harrison’s Landing until the evening of Thursday, August 14th, when it embarked upon transports, and sailed next morning to Fortress Monroe. On account of boisterous weather, it remained here until August 19th, when the steamer upon which it was embarked, sailed for Norfolk for fuel, and on the following day reachedAcquia Creek. The regiment immediately moved by rail to Falmouth and encamped. After sundown on the 21st, it marched for Kelly’s Ford, on the Rappahannock, to meet the old enemy left upon the Peninsula. On the 23d, it proceeded to Rappahannock Station, and thence to Warrenton, where the division was again attached to the First Corps, under command of General McDowell, now a part of Pope’s army.

On the 28th, the corps marched to the left towards Manassas, and subsequently moved in the direction of Centreville. At daylight on the 29th, the Reserves engaged the enemy, and for two entire days, were continually under fire, almost constantly moving, and totally destitute of rations. The First Regiment was on picket duty during the 29th, within sight of the enemy, and but a few yards in front of his line. Its loss in the engagement was six killed and twenty-two wounded.

Battle South Mountain (Turner’s Gap)

On the 1st of September, the army was withdrawn towards Fairfax. On the evening of the following day, the division marched to Hail’s Hill, Virginia, and thence to Upton’s Hill, where it encamped until the 6th, when it crossed the Long Bridge, and passing through Washington, marched via Leesboro, Brookville, New Market, Frederick and Middletown, and engaged the enemy at South Mountain on the afternoon of Sunday, the 14th.

The gorge and summits of the mountain were held by Hill’s Corps which was strongly posted, and determined to maintain its position. The First Brigade held the extreme right of the line opposite the troops of Longstreet’s Corps, which had now come up and joined those of Hill. As the men approached the stone wall at the base of the mountain, the rebel skirmishers and sharp-shooters posted behind it, opened a destructive fire. General Seymour, commanding the brigade, called out to Colonel Roberts, “Can’t your regiment take that height ?”

The Colonel immediately gave the command ” forward,” when the column rushed on with a yell, driving the enemy from the wall, and unchecked in its intrepid charge by the bullets of the foe, or the rugged acclivity of the mountain, drove every thing before it, until the summit was gained and made secure from attack. The men slept upon their arms during the night, ready to renew the contest in the morning; but the enemy finding themselves thus suddenly turned out of their fancied security in this stronghold of nature, withdrew during the night, leaving the victors in possession of the field.

On the following morning, General Hooker came upon the ground, and amidst the relics of the struggle, in presence of most of the general officers of that portion of the army, presented in person his thanks to Colonel Roberts, for the heroic conduct of the regiment. In this engagement the loss was ten killed and thirty wounded. Captain Thos. P. Dwin, of Company H, First Lieutenant John D. Sadler, of Company K, and Second Lieutenant John H. Taylor, of Company C, were among the killed.

Battle of Antietam

On the following morning, the division resumed the march, and passing through Boonsboro’ and Keedysville, bivouacked for the night near the latter place. On the 16th, the division was ordered with the corps to cross the Antietam Creek, and attack the left flank of the enemy. The Bucktails, thrown forward as skirmishers, were soon engaged with a superior force, and the First Regiment, together with the brigade was ordered to their support, and succeeded in driving the enemy from his position, and in holding the ground, by keeping a strong skirmish line engaged during the night. So near were the pickets of the contending forces, that a squad of six men of the enemy were captured, having approached unawares to our line.

At daylight on the 17th, the battle began, and notwithstanding the fatigue consequent upon the attack of the preceding mght, the command entered the engagement with the vigor of fresh troops, and after a fiercely contested fight was relieved about nine o’clock A. M., remaining, however, in line of battle on the field throughout the day, and sleeping on their arms at night. General Hooker having been wounded, turned over the command of his corps to General Meade, throwing General Seymour in command of the division, Colonel Roberts of the First Brigade, and Captain Talley of the regiment. These commands were assumed while on the field. The loss was five killed and twenty-three wounded.

On the 18th the regiment, with the division, moved near Sharpsburg, and on the day following marched as advance guard across the battle-field of the 17th, and encamped on the banks of the Potomac.

On Monday, September 22d, the command was ordered to Harper’s Ferry, but before beginning the march the order was countermanded. Remaining in camp at Sharpsburg until October 26th, a movement was commenced towards Berlin. After a march of eight miles it encamped in a wood, under a pelting storm, which continued through the night, rendering sleep impossible. Crossing the Potomac near Berlin, the regiment passed through Lovettsville and Waterford, and encamped near Hamilton.

In the latter part of October, 1862, Governor Curtin requested General McClellan to accept the resignation of Colonel Roberts, that he might return to the Governor’s staff. This request was granted, and the Colonel taking leave of his regiment and compatriots in arms, on the 2d of November, departed for his new field of labor, followed by the hearty regrets of his men. The attachment felt for him was never lessened. In the spring of 1864 they sent to him from the field a corps badge in gold, with an inscription of the names of the battles in which he had led them. At the State Capital Colonel Roberts was placed in charge of the arduous and responsible duties of the Executive Military Department.

Colonel Roberts was succeeded in command of the regiment by the ranking Captain, William Cooper Talley, of Company F, who was subsequently commissioned Colonel, to rank from that date. Captain W. W. Stewart, of Company K, was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain T. B. Kauffman, of Company I, Major.

The regiment continued its march up the Loudon Valley until it encamped near Warrenton, on the evening of the 6th of November.

On the following day General Burnside took command of the army of the Potomac, relieving General McClellan. The forces were immediately organized in three grand divisions of two corps each-designated as the Right, Centre and Left,3 and commanded respectively by Sumner, Hooker and Franklin. The Pennsylvania Reserves, under General Meade, formed part of the First Corps commanded by General Reynolds, of the Left Grand Division.

At this time, a part of Lee’s army had reached Culpepper, and the remainder was scattered up and down the Shenandoah Valley, while the national army, having passed down east of the Blue Ridge and masked its movements by holding the passes, was assembled in the neighborhood of Warrenton. On the 16th of November, the movement towards Fredericksburg was commenced. On Saturday, November 24, the regiment with the division, reached Brooks’ Station on the Richmond and Potomac railroad, encamping at this point until December 8th, whence it marched to White Oak Church.

Battle of Fredericksburg

On Thursday, December 11th, it moved towards Fredericksburg, and on the following day crossed the Rappahannock, with Franklin’s Grand Division, and taking position on the extreme left of the army, bivouacked upon the field. In the battle which ensued, the regiment occupied the right of the brigade, and moved in steady, unwavering line across an open plain under a heavy enfilading artillery fire; and when the order was given, charged the enemy with resistless energy, crossing the railroad and ditches, and driving him two hundred yards beyond his entrenchments. Colonel Talley finding his regiment out-flanked on the right, with the enemy strongly reinforced in front, and no supports coming up in rear, was compelled to retire, after having opened the way to victory.4

The following day passed without a renewal of the attack, and on the evening of Monday, the 15th, the army re-crossed the river, and the Reserves encamped near Belle Plain. In this engagement Colonel Talley led the regiment with great gallantry, assisted by his faithful Adjutant, John C. Harvey, who had but recently been promoted from the ranks. The loss in the engagement, was two killed and thirty-four wounded. Though this loss was but small, when compared with that of troops operating in the immediate front of Fredericksburg, yet the signal advantage gained in the whole battle, was gained by this part of the line; and had the successful assault here made been vigorously followed up, it would doubtless have resulted in a brilliant victory, instead of that bloody repulse which filled the land with gloom.

The “Mud March”

Burnside having again determined to cross the Rappahannock and offer battle, the march commenced on Tuesday, January 20th, but a rain-storm which continued three days, rendering the roads impassable, it was found necessary to abandon the attempt, and the regiment returned on Friday, January 23d, to the camp which it left on the preceding Tuesday, after a march of twenty-two miles, the men poorly clad, and whilst on the march, entirely without protection from the weather.

On the 6th of February, the regiment broke camp, and marched to Fairfax Station, whence it was deployed along the Orange and Alexandria railroad for thepurpose of guarding the supplies of the army against the attack of Mosby and other guerrillas. Upon the assumption of chief command by General Hooker, the army was thoroughly re-organized in seven corps; the First under Reynolds, the Second under Couch, the Third under Sickles, the Sixth under Sedgwick, the Eleventh under Howard and the Twelfth under Slocum. The Reserves in this organization, formed a part of the Fifth corps, commanded by General Meade. In the Gettysburg campaign, Meade upon being relieved to take command of the army, was succeeded by General Sykes, and the Reserves were commanded by General Crawford.

Battle of Gettysburg

On the 25th of June, the regiment broke camp at Fairfax, and joining in the general movement of the army, crossed the Potomac, and on the 27th, encamped on the Monocacy. On the 28th, it moved to Frederick, where it met the main body of the army. On the following day it took up the line of march for Gettysburg. Upon crossing the Maryland line, Colonel Talley announced to his men that they had entered Pennsylvania, and would soon meet the enemy that had invaded its soil, and threatened the safety of their homes and families; that he knew his gallant men would not rest until the bold invaders were driven from the borders of their beloved State. Though greatly fatigued in consequence of forced marches, both officers and men united in enthusiastic demonstrations of joy. Caps flew in air, swords were brandished, and the men shouted and sung National songs.

Upon its arrival at Gettysburg, on the 2d of July, it was immediately formed in line of battle, where it remained nearly two hours. It was then moved to the left, re-formed on the right of Little Round Top, and charged the enemy with the most determined spirit, driving him back upon his reserves, and strewing the field with his dead.

On the 3d, in the charge which was made by the First Brigade, the First Regiment commanded by Colonel Talley, occupied the centre. In this brilliant movement, by a sudden change of direction, the enemy was struck on the flank and driven in great confusion. One hundred prisoners, one battle flag and a large number of small arms were captured. Company K, of this regiment, was from Gettysburg, many of the men fighting within sight of their own homes, and some even struggling to drive the invaders from their own fields.

On the 5th of July, the regiment marched with the division in pursuit of the enemy. Upon the retreat of Lee up the Shenandoah Valley, it again crossed the Potomac, and proceeded to the neighborhood of Culpepper, where, on the 1st of September, it encamped. It participated in the battle of Bristoe Station, the fruitless campaign to Mine Run, and in the numerous skirmishes and manoeuvres in which the army of the Potomac participated, till the close of the year.

On the 1st of January, 1864, the regiment moved to Bristoe Station, with orders to keep open the communications between the defences of Washington and the front. In this position it went into winter quarters, where it continued until the commencement of the Wilderness campaign, under Grant.

Battle of the Wilderness

In the battle which opened on the 5th of May, the First brigade, under Colonel McCandless, was thrown forward to Parker’s Store, to feel the enemy. The First Regiment was deployed on the left of the line. Colonel Talley was ordered to take two companies of his command through the woods to reconnoitre the position in his front. Approaching the plank road, he was fired upon from a corps of rebel troops that was moving up the road. Quickly returning, the facts were reported to General Crawford, who ordered him to withdraw his regiment and return to the main line of the army.

On the second day of the battle, the Reserves occupied a position in the centre of the line. Colonel Talley again made a reconnoissance with the regiment in the direction of Parker’s Store, where the enemy was found in force, and the facts duly reported; but the undergrowth in this portion of the field was so dense that it was impossible to penetrate it in line of battle. The regiment, together with the division, was moved at different times to weak points of the line, and at eleven o’clock on the 7th, it moved by the left flank.

Battle of Spotsylvania

At the opening of the battle of Spottsylvania, on the 8th of May, Colonel McCandless was wounded. Colonel Talley accordingly succeeded to the command of the brigade, and Lieutenant Colonel Stewart to the command of the regiment. While charging the enemy for a third time, being on the right and front of his brigade, and riding through a dense undergrowth of pine, Colonel Talley was captured by forces of Ewell’s corps. On the following day, while on his way to Richmond with three hundred and forty other Union prisoners, he was retaken near Beaver Dam Station, by Sheridan’s cavalry, and re-joined the regiment at the North Anna.

On the 31st of May, the last day of service for the Reserves, the regiment, commanded by Colonel Talley, participated in the battle of Bethesda Church, taking a conspicuous part and assisting to achieve a brilliant victory. On the 1st day of June, 1864, together with the division, the regiment left the army, and proceeded via White House to Washington, and thence through Harrisburg to Philadelphia, where, on the 13th of June it was mustered out of service. The whole munber mustered into the regiment was one thousand and eighty-four. Of these, one hundred and thirty-nine were killed or died in the field, two hundred and thirty-three were wounded, two hundred and fifty-eight were discharged for disability contracted in the service, and one hundred and forty-eight re-enlisted as veterans.

  1. Organization of the First Brigade, Brigadier General John F. Reynolds; Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, Major General George A. McCall; Fifth (34th) Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Seneca G. Simmons; First (30th) Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel R. Biddle Roberts; Second (31st) Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel William McCandless; Eighth (37th) Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel George S. Hayes.
  2. Extract from General McCall’s Official Report:

    Cooper’s and Ken’s batteries, in front of the centre, were boldly charged upon, each time a regiment dashing up to within forty or fifty yards. They were then hurled back by a storm of canister and the deliberate fire of the First regiments Colonel Roberts, whom I had placed immediately in the rear of Kern’s, and the Ninth, Colonel Jackson, in the rear of Cooper’s. The contest was severe, and put the steadiness of these regiments to the test; both suffered heavy loss, but particularly the First Regiment, whose gallant Lieutenant Colonel (McIntire) was severely wounded. Our Campaigns. 1861-4. Woodward, page 140.

  3. The Right Grand Division was composed of the Second Corps, under General Couch, and the Ninth Corps, under General Wilcox. The Centre Grand Division of the Third Corps, under General Stoneman, and the Fifth Corps, under General Butterfield. The Left Grand Division, of the First Corps, under General Reynolds, and the. Sixth Corps, under General W. F. Smith.
  4. By twelve o’clock, most of the dispositions on our side were made, and General Meade began to advance with earnestness and vigor. His division consisted of three brigades, of which the Third was on the left, the First on the right, closely followed by the Second. General Gibbon’s division was ordered to hold itself ready as a support. The troops went forward with great spirit and resolution. In handsome style they charged up the road, regardless of a hot fire from the enemy, crossed the railroad, ascended the heights beyond, broke through the enemy’s first line, penetrated very nearly the enemy’s second line, under General Taliaferro, and gained a position near Captain Hamilton’s house, capturing and sending back three hundred prisoners and more. Nothing could be better than this gallant charge. It was made in the midst of a destructive fire of musketry in front, and a severe enfilading fire of artillery, and for a time carried everything before it. Finding an interval in the enemy’s line, between the brigades of Archer and Lane, General Meade took advantage of it, and wedged his advance in turning the flanks of both brigades and throwing them into confusion. He next struck Gregg’s brigade and broke it to pieces, with the loss of its commanding officer. General A. P. Hill’s line was then pierced, and General Meade’s next duty was to break the line of General Taliaferro. But this was not so easy. For an hour and a half had the gallant little division pushed forward in its successful career. But it was now bearing the brunt of a contest with the entire corps of General Jackson, which had been ordered to meet the audacious attack, and it could not maintain itself without continued support. * * * General Meade had come within a hair’s breadth of achieving a great success. His attack had been so vigorous as to be almost a surprise. His troops had come upon the enemy, in some cases, before he had time to take the muskets from the stacks. Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps, page 220.